### Micro vs Mild vs Full Hybrid Vehicle

When a motor vehicle is partially or fully powered by more than one type of power source (mostly fossil fuel and battery power) then it is called hybrid vehicle.

Hybrid cars are most commonly classified in following three categories:… Read the rest

There is hardly anyone who hates chocolate. This has made chocolate manufacturing a billion dollar industry with U.S.A being the largest consumer of chocolates. The process of dark chocolate manufacturing goes dates back to 1100 BC and the process remains Read the rest

### How LCRV or LSPV Braking System Works

Brake system of an automobile, as you already know how it works, stops the wheel from rotating further.
But in conventional hydraulic braking system, at all the wheels equal amount of hydraulic brake fluid pressure get transmitted as a result, … Read the rest

### How to calculate vehicle speed from engine RPM and vice versa

Suppose your motor vehicles speedometer not working and you need to know your vehicle speed for the given engine speed for a certain gear ratio. How you can do that , let’s see..

Say, Engine rpm= 3000
Gear ratio=1.5

### The Challenges of New Eco-Friendly Tech – Are Electric Cars Really That Green?

Increasing the focus on renewable energy sources is gaining more and more traction around the globe, and as consumers and the public gain a better understanding of how things like wind turbines work, as they continue to pop up Read the rest

### Bolted Joint Design Calculation Example for Joint in Tension

Properly designed bolted joint is extremely important for striking the balance between the cost and life of the joint.

As a design engineer, for a good bolted joint design, for a given loading conditions and materials of the abutments, you Read the rest

### Worst Case Method Assembly Tolerance Stack up Calculation for Non-Symmetric Dimensional Tolerances with Example

If you are wondering what is stack-up analysis/calculation, the answer is determining worst case scenario. Moreover, the problem can sorted out in early stages of design rather than undergoing prototyping and finding out the issue.

### DFMEA Creation Tutorial with Example

What is DFMEA?

DFMEA is Design Failure Mode & Effect Analysis. It is the application of FMEA to a specific product/system in a disciplined manner that anticipates failures to prevent their occurrence in design.Read the rest

### Assembly Tolerance Stack Up Calculation in 4 Steps with Example

Tolerance stack up analysis calculation is done to find out essentially the deviation of gap of the surfaces between two specified parts.

How?

Following steps shows how to do the tolerance stack up analysis for absolute tolerance system or worst … Read the rest

### Nominal and Metric Pipe Size Chart

Wall thickness of pipes available in different standard schedules (SCH.) for NPS (Nominal Pipe Size in “inch”) as well as DN (Diameter Nominal in “mm”) are shown in below chart.

The wall thickness unit shown in the table without bracket … Read the rest