If you have the pump characteristic curves from your pump supplier and already managed to plot the system resistance curve for the piping system you are designing then it is really very easy to finalize … Read the rest

## How to Create the System Resistance Curve for Open System

Refer the concept of the system resistance curve from my previous article for better understanding this article.

You will find an important equation there:

**Total system resistance = Frictional resistance + Resistance due to static head (height difference) + Resistance**

## How to Create the System Resistance Curve for Closed System

Like pump curve, this is another very important curve for the system designers.

**What is a System Resistance Curve?**

- This is a graph plotted with
**flow rate along X axis**and the total**resistance to the flow along Y**

## How to Read a Pump Curve

**What is Pump Characteristic Curve Graph?**

As the name suggest it is the curve which define the performance characteristics of a pump.

Basically, the pump performance curve is plotted with **flow rate** **along** **X-Axis** and **Pressure Head along Y-Axis.**

A … Read the rest

## Water Pipe Sizing Calculation Example – Part 2: Determining the Effective Pipe Length

Refer the Part-1 of this piping system design calculations series to know the problem statement and the assumptions.

** **

**What is Equivalent Pipe Length Method?**

This the way of converting the Tee bends, valves and other pipe fittings in terms of … Read the rest

## Water Pipe Sizing Calculation Example – Part 1: Overview

This water piping system design calculation example will use the Darcy-Weisbach equation to calculate the pressure loss in a pipe and using that value it will check the appropriateness of the assumed pipe size.

**Problem Definition**

## Calculate and Understand the Significance of Reynolds Number and Viscosity

Quite often you have to calculate Reynolds number while dealing with hydraulics and pneumatics. Know how to calculate and appreciate its values.

Understanding the following two points will be helpful before going to the actual calculation and formula:

**Dynamic**

## Understanding Viscosity

**Dynamic Viscosity**

** **The resistance between two consecutive layers of fluid is viscosity. This resistance is generated because of the fact that different layers flow at different velocity. Or, in other words, there exists some amount of relative velocity which causes … Read the rest