Micro vs Mild vs Full Hybrid Vehicle

When a motor vehicle is partially or fully powered by more than one type of power source (mostly fossil fuel and battery power) then it is called hybrid vehicle.


Hybrid cars are most commonly classified in following three categories:… Read the rest

Vehicle Stopping Distance Calculation Equations and Example

Imagine you are driving, you suddenly see a obstacle in the middle of the road. Now, before you actually press the brake pedal, you, as a human being, will take some time for thinking or analyzing the situation. This time

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Tractive Force Calculation for a Vehicle


Tractive force or tractive effort or traction is the force applied between the tire and road surface to move a car or any vehicle for that matter.

The maximum permissible traction force that can be applied to the wheels

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Tire Rolling Circumference Calculation Example

Wheel rolling radius or static loaded radius is taken as input for tire rolling circumference calculation.

The rolling circumference (RC), in turns, is further considered as input in various vehicle dynamics calculation like traction force calculation and grade

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